Natural resources are divided into several types, including perpetual, renewable resources, non-renewable resources, and potential resources.
Resources that are always there and whose existence is relatively constant even though these resources are exploited on a large scale.
Resources that can be reduced in the short term, but in the long term will recover due to natural processes. Resources included in this category include forests, fisheries, and animal husbandry.
Natural resources that cannot be produced because the formation process takes millions of years. Fossil fuels are non-renewable natural resources, so they must be used as wisely as possible for national development without causing environmental pollution.
These resources come from human knowledge, but have not been exploited. However, one day it will become a natural resource because of human ability to use it.
2. Artificial Resources
Human resources are deliberately made to meet the needs of his life. Some of the artificial resources in Indonesia are rice fields, reservoirs, plantations, and dry fields.
Human Resources is the main element in every activity carried out. HR consists of the thinking power and physical power possessed by individuals. Thinking power is innate intelligence, while physical strength or skill is obtained from business. Human resources are the subject as well as the object of development. Human resource development can be seen from three aspects, namely quality, quantity, and population mobility.
4.Conservation of Non-Biological Resources
The extraction of non-biological resources which is carried out on a large scale certainly has an impact on the area where these resources are extracted (mining). Efforts to prevent and mitigate impacts on mining areas can be carried out using several approaches, including environmental approaches, administrative approaches, and educative approaches.
The environmental approach is aimed at environmental management so as to avoid losses caused by environmental damage. An administrative approach that binds all parties in mining activities to comply with applicable regulations. An educative approach to the community that is carried out and developed to foster and provide counseling and motivate behavior change and raise awareness to participate in maintaining environmental sustainability.
5.UNNES and Community Activities in Natural Resources Conservation
The form of UNNES concern in maintaining natural resource conservation is not only carried out on campus, but also outside campus. One of the activities carried out is reforestation which is carried out by students through tree planting activities, both for new students and through KKN activities.
Implementation of natural resource management can also be carried out through research and community service, both carried out by lecturers and students. Community empowerment activities are carried out through strengthening community groups concerned with the environment, maintaining local environmental wisdom, as well as in the sustainable management of natural resources.
Activities for natural resource management that have been carried out by academics outside the campus include: assistance with the management of organic farming in various areas, both in settlements and at schools. The assistance is expected to create healthy, sustainable food for consumption. Development of environmentally friendly batik, by utilizing plants as natural dyes to reduce pollution and environmental damage.
The loss of biodiversity is caused by many factors that are associated with human activities on ecosystems. These human activities result in habitat loss/damage, introduction of invasive species, pollution, over-exploitation which ultimately leads to climate change and loss of biodiversity.
The diversity of human culture and knowledge systems is also considered as part of biodiversity. Traditional cultural diversity is also related to knowledge systems in the utilization and preservation of biodiversity, which is known as local wisdom.
Green architecture is architecture that consumes minimal natural resources, including water, energy, and materials, and has minimal negative impact on the environment. Green architecture is an approach to building planning that seeks to minimize harmful effects on human health and the environment. The basic principle of green architecture is the achievement of harmony in the relationship between humans and the environment.
The green architecture pillar aims to develop and manage buildings and environments that support the vision of conservation, as well as realizing an internal transportation system that is effective, efficient and environmentally friendly. One form of implementing the pillars of green architecture includes the management of UNNES campus buildings in accordance with environmentally friendly green building principles, the use of recyclable building materials, and environmentally friendly interior design.
The basic concept of sustainable green architecture includes the integration of landscape, interior, and architectural aspects into one unit. With the concept of green architecture, it is hoped that the management of the UNNES campus environment will be in accordance with environmentally friendly principles and user comfort. UNNES as a conservation university has a commitment to be an example of environmentally friendly campus development, especially lecture and office buildings as a physical manifestation of green campus imagery, by establishing all the principles of green architecture as a whole.
An environmentally friendly building (green building) is a building that applies environmental principles to the design, construction, operation, management and important aspects of handling the impacts of climate change. Following are the criteria for environmentally friendly buildings.
Green transportation (green transport) is a transportation device that is environmentally sound, that is, it uses as little energy as possible and does not produce greenhouse gases. Green means of transportation include hybrid cars and electric cars. Green transportation or a sustainable transportation system must guarantee accessibility and access for all levels of society. Green transportation must also guarantee environmental sustainability, namely as little as possible a negative impact on the environment. The green transportation program must be supported by all academics by walking or cycling in the internal campus movement to foster a healthy and humanist culture.
In Indonesia, the problem of processing waste originating from the exploitation of mineral natural resources and the mining industry has not been carried out responsibly. Environmental damage resulting from the exploitation of mineral natural resources by mining companies has made many areas polluted by unnecessary mineral waste and waste originating from mineral extraction processes that use hazardous chemicals.
Domestic waste production is always there and never stops. Often we just throw away waste without thinking about the impact. When we don’t care about the impact of household waste, this waste will become a product that is very detrimental to all of us. Solid waste can be handled by sorting waste into organic waste, non-organic waste and B3 waste.
Liquid waste that seeps into the ground will negatively affect water quality which results in water contamination. To overcome this problem, it can be done through the implementation of studies and empirical research that further examines the wastewater treatment system which is then implemented in the form of applied technology. Several wastewater treatment technologies include Biorotation, Biotour, Meralis, Merotek, IPA Mobile, Biority, and Ekotech Garden or Sanita Park.
Clean energy is power that comes from renewable energy. A clean energy program is needed to save the world from climate change as well as to ensure energy security in the future. Clean energy is energy that is produced with minimal adverse impact on social, cultural, health and environmental aspects. Renewable energy includes solar energy, biofuel energy, and wind energy.
In implementing clean energy, a strong commitment from all parties is required, starting from the simplest way, namely socialization to the community, campus academics, and the environment around the campus. The Indonesian Greens also advocate the following.